How to Know When to Change Your Oil: Degradation on the Molecular Level

A car's oil should be changed between every 3,000 to 4,000 miles.

With all the hype surrounding oil changes, it's difficult to cut through the advertising down to the basic science of an oil change. Well, I'm not affiliated with Castrol, Mobil, Pennzoil, Motorcraft, LucasOil, or any other company that markets petroleum-based products, so I can honestly and fairly evaluate my experiences with oil changes. Since I began driving, I have never utilized someone else's services to change my oil, so I know exactly what brands and what quantity of oil has gone into my engine with each and every change. I have charted exactly how many miles it has been since each oil change (tonight, 25 June 2010, for example, I let it go a little farther than normal at 3,968 miles). I have also marked down the brand and viscosity used with each change and charted the performance of my car by date and corresponding with the correct oil change. I do this all in a vehicle notebook specifically tailored for this purpose. In short, my Honda is a rolling scientific research experiment.

On August 18, 2009, I was ecstatic to receive my current daily driver from my fiancée’s father: a 1991 Honda Accord LX (5 speed manual 2.2 liter 4 cylinder engine). It was a completely average car, but you wouldn't know it from the gigantic smile on my face every time I'm in the driver's seat! Before that point, I drove a hulking 2001 Explorer XLT (automatic V8 5.0 liter). The Explorer is a solid, reliable vehicle, but the gas mileage (19 on an average day) began to eat into my wallet. Therefore, I chose to drop the insurance on the Explorer and change to the Accord, which had 258,000 miles on the dashboard when I received it.

The oil in the car at the time was standard motor oil (not synthetic), but I'm unsure of the brand. My fiancée’s father charted the fuel efficiency of the vehicle about as closely as I do, and he told me that it got 30 miles per gallon like clockwork. While I was driving on that oil, I got the exact same mileage (from 29.8 to 30.5 mpg). The first few oil changes, I used Motorcraft standard motor oil (10w30 and then 5w30 once I ensured it did not leak). My mileage remained at an even 30 mpg.

In September 2009, I started using a 5w30 Pennzoil synthetic blend (50% motor oil, 50% synthetic, and my mileage immediately went up about 1.5 miles per gallon to just under 32 average. In November, I began using 5w30 Mobil Synthetic oil, and my mileage increased slowly over the next month from 32 to between 34 and 36 miles per gallon, where it has remained since even during the summer months. I have continued to use Mobil since then (even though it is the priciest oil).

I noticed that neither the synthetic blend nor pure synthetic resulted in any degradation in gas mileage over the first 3,500-4,000 miles (I never went further than that on the same oil and typically changed it at around 3,000). I also noticed that the oil still retained much of its original honey color at 3,000 miles. Regular motor oil, however, resulted in mpg that consistently began to degrade around 2,000 miles. I would start with 30.5 or so and end up with 29.5 by the last couple tanks. The color also blackened much quicker.

Gas mileage is the only tool generating hard numbers that I have to evaluate the performance of the oil I used. I have no ability to measure the lubricating quality of the oil, nor do I own a dyno with which I can test horsepower. I will say that when I made the jump from synthetic blend to full synthetic, I swore that I could feel an increase in engine response. Obviously, though, feelings are not scientifically measurable.

What I can say for sure is the following: my gas mileage was at 30 mpg with Motorcraft motor oil, 31.5 with Pennzoil synthetic blend, and 35 and even 35.8 once with full synthetic.

Confounding factor: I was learning to drive a new vehicle with a stick shift; this can account for some variable of change.

Clarifying factor: I drove on highways and cities at about 50/50 each; my mileage, therefore, would not be significantly altered by driving conditions. I also always drove alone during this period.

I noticed that 3,000 oil seemed to be right about the right time to change the motor oil. Repeated 3,000 mile changes with synthetic, however, have resulted in oil that is still similar to the way it came out of the bottle. Tonight, just under 4,000 was too much: the oil was slightly black. If you want to change your oil in a risk-free window, then, stick to changing it every 3,000 to 3,500 miles.

Note: on every synthetic jug I have bought, their is some claim about it being guaranteed for 15,000 miles. Heaven help you if you try to milk that promise for what it's worth, and your engine will suffer the consequences (that, I can guarantee). No kind of oil should ever be taken 15,000 miles. Even if synthetic oil can retain its lubricating properties that long (open for debate), it will be so full of impurities that that ability will be irrelevant. Change it less often than 4,000 miles at your own risk.

Experience: 6 years of driving, details below.

1. 5 years driving with the 2001 Ford Explorer, now with 140,000 miles. No breaking down, no engine problems, no rough running, no overheating, no nothing.

2. 1 year of driving with the 1991 Honda Accord, now with 279,000 miles. Also, no breaking down, no engine problems, no rough running, no overheating, no nothing.

SOURCES

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mobil.svg

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How Long Does It Take to Replace a Clutch

How long does it take to replace a clutch? Everything you need to know about replacing a clutch.

When comes to replacing your automobiles clutch, there are several factors that effect how much time the project may take to complete. In order to help you gauge how much time will be needed, whether you are doing it yourself, or hiring a mechanic, let's go over the main points of focus that factor in on clutch replacement.

First, I'm going to give you the crash course on clutches, so that you have a basic understanding of what your clutch is and how it helps your automobile function.

Your vehicles clutch works to help your transmission shift gears and keep the vehicle moving. The clutch also allows your engine to continue spinning freely, even when your vehicle is stopped. Without the clutch, your car would be in constant motion while the engine is on, which would make driving very difficult. Likewise, in a vehicle that has a clutch in need of replacement, your vehicle won't move at all, as most clutches do not break while in gear. No motion from the vehicle while the engine revs up is usually sign number one that your clutch needs to be replaced.

Your clutch works by using a series of gears, bands, plates, springs and bearings. When a clutch is in need of replacement, it can be any number of these vital parts that needs to be replaced. A seasoned mechanic can often inform you of whether or not your entire clutch needs to be replaced, or just certain components, though they will often have to remove the clutch in order to give you a definitive answer.

So, now that you know a little bit about your automobiles clutch, let's look at some of the factors that can increase or decrease the time it will take to replace your clutch.

1. Transmission Type: Manual or Automatic?

Manual transmissions tend to have clutches with more parts, but they are often less complicated and less expensive to replace then clutches in vehicles with an Automatic transmission. Automatic transmission vehicles do not usually have clutch kits available through part shops, which can also make the project more daunting.

Let's say your transmission has already been removed from the vehicle. It would take 2-4 hours for an experienced mechanic to replace the clutch in this situation, so long as no other complications arose.

2. FWD Vs. RWD

Front Wheel Drive (FWD) vehicles are well known for being much more menacing then Rear Wheel Drive (RWD) vehicles. With a FWD vehicle, your engine and transmission are often mated and seated in your engine compartment as a unit. In order to change the clutch, you often have to remove the entire unit, un-mate the engine and transmission, remove and replace the clutch, and then re-mate the engine and transmission before putting the unit back in the vehicle. In order to do this, you will also have to disassemble the wheel spindles, CV shafts, the radiator, hoses, electric, air system and many other components along the way. Then you'll have to replace everything afterward. Besides the obvious intense labor involved in this, you can run into such complications and not properly aligning the drive shaft or bending the drive shaft while putting the unit back into the engine compartment. Both complications can require you to do the job all over again, and are not the worst complications that can arise.

In RWD vehicles, the job is much less intimidating. You'll still be required to un-mate the transmission from the engine in order to replace the clutch. Though as the transmission will be a separate unit from the engine, you can leave the engine in the vehicle, avoid disconnecting most of the front end of the vehicle and just pull the transmission away from the vehicle. Then you replace the clutch, re-mate the transmission to the engine and your done. The complications of clutch replacement in a RWD vehicle are few and far between when compared to a FWD, even for a novice.

If your vehicle has is FWD, you can add an extra 4 to 8 hours to your project timeline. If your vehicle is a RWD, you can add between 2 and 4 hours to the job, which mostly depend on your experience.

3. Clutch Kit or Singular Components?

To tell you the truth, getting a clutch kit and replacing every component in your clutch system is much easier, cost effective and efficient then trying to replace single components. Part of the reason for this, is that it can be difficult to pinpoint one particular component of the clutch that needs to be replaced. Unless of course, you've been repairing clutches for 40 years. Another good reason to replace the whole clutch, is that even if you can pinpoint one particular part that is causing your clutch malfunction, the odds are that if you don't replace the rest of the clutch at that time, you will soon need to go back in and change more parts later. So it's good to ask yourself, how often do you want to go through the process to get to your clutch? It's also less time consuming to replace the whole clutch, then to try and find specific parts that are worn.

If you are replacing the entire clutch with a kit, you can add 1 hour to your project. If you are attempting to pinpoint and replace only certain components, you can add 2 to 4 hours to your project.

4. Drive Train Mileage: High or Low?

Mileage makes a difference. If your vehicle is brand new and has less then 50,000 miles on it, then most of your parts, including the clutch are probably still in great condition. This is especially important when it comes to the process of getting to your clutch. If your vehicle is high mileage, then most of the parts are probably worn, rusty, oil covered and have a higher potential for breaking as the project continues.

There is no definitive timeline for this project if your vehicle has higher or lower mileage, though if you have bolts, parts and other components breaking or stripping along the way, then you can add anywhere from 1 to 5 hours to the job. It really depends on the condition of your vehicle and how much more you'll have to replace. I've had some vehicles where all of the transmission bolts were worn and broke, the housing was cracked, linkages needed new springs, other bolts were stripped (requiring special tools to remove), gaskets were old and tore on the way out, and the engine and transmission were covered in built up grease and oil. All of these things complicate the process.

5. The Proper Tools

I have known very crafty mechanics who can complete this entire project using two screw drivers, a few select sockets, a pair of pliers and some wrenches. While this is one way to do it, this is certainly not ideal, especially if you do not have a lot of experience replacing clutches. Most experienced mechanics will not even attempt to replace a clutch without all the proper tools for the job. The obvious reason is that it takes less time and you bleed a lot less during the process.

If you have all the proper tools for the job, you can shave off an hour or two from your project time. If your tool selection is limited, you can add 2 to 5 hours to your timeline.

6. DIY Vs. Mechanic: Experience Makes a Difference

I have always applauded those who choose to do their own vehicular repairs. Not only do you learn something along the way, but you can take the responsibility for any thing that goes wrong, and you'll have direct awareness of your process, making it easier to understand what when wrong. Even with that in mind, DIY can add lots of time to your project. Whereas an experienced mechanic who has replaced dozens of clutches already, can easily complete the job in timely manner.

If you are DIY and you have little to no experience in the project, you can add 2 to 5 days or more to your project. If you are hiring a skilled mechanic to do the job, depending on their experience, it can take 5 to 12 hours to complete the job.

7. Specialty Vehicles

Specialty vehicles can also make or break your clutch repair time. Some high end vehicles include components such as valves, extra gears or dual clutches. Other high end vehicles might require special tools that would otherwise be unnecessary on most other vehicles. Mercedes, BMW's and Ferrari's are famous for this type of thing.

If your vehicle is high end, you can add a few extra hours plus extra $$$ to your project.

To summarize: In the perfect situation, your clutch replacement could take from 4 to 8 hours to complete.

Though since most vehicles in need of clutch replacement are not in perfect shape, it can often take between 5 and 10 hours to complete the project, adding more time for less experience on the mechanics part.

Auto Air Conditioning: Why Does It Blow Hot and Cold?

The most common reason that a cars air conditioners blows hot and cold is moisture in the system. Replacing the dryer, evacuating the system, and recharging with R134a usually solves the problem.

"The Dog Days of Summer" will soon be upon us, and your car's air conditioner is starting to blow hot and cold. You are grateful for your auto AC and the icy-cold air that flows from the vents. Then, one morning, without warning, all that changed. You cranked up the AC. You relax as icy-cold air washes over your body. Then, a few minutes later the air from the vents starts to get warm. Soon the air from your AC is as warm as the air outside your car. Then slowly it starts getting cold again, then icy cold. What is going on? What is wrong with the AC? If you are driving an older vehicle, chances are that the AC is freezing up. Air and moisture usually cause this problem in the system by turning into ice and blocking the orifice tube.

Things That You Will Need

  1. Basic mechanic's hand tools
  2. Air conditioning duct thermometer
  3. Air conditioning manifold gauge set
  4. Air conditioning vacuum pump
  5. Refrigerant 134a (R134a)
  6. Electronic refrigerant leak detector

By now, if you have been following my Auto Air Conditioning series, you have probably added manifold gauges, set, a vacuum pump, and an electronic leak detector to your tool kit. You need to add a duct thermometer.

Jerry's Basic Air Conditioning Diagnostic Chart

I developed this chart as a handout for an Adult ED class I taught on auto air conditioning a couple of years ago. I will probably do a whole article on using manifold gauges, but this is an opportune time to introduce you to this diagnostic chart. It is straightforward and easy to understand.

LS PRESSURE HS PRESSURE DUCT TEMP PROBABLE CAUSE OF PROBLEM
LOW LOW WARM LOW REFRIGERANT CHARGE
HIGH HIGH WARM OVERCHARGE OF REFRIGERANT
HIGH HIGH SOME COOL OVERCHARGE OR AIR IN SYSTEM
NORMAL NORMAL WARM MOISTURE IN SYSTEM
LOW LOW WARM EXPANSION VALVE STUCK CLOSED
LOW LOW WARM ORIFICE TUBE PLUGGED
LOW LOW WARM HIDE SIDE RESTRICTION
HIGH LOW WARM COMPRESSOR OR CONTROL VALVE FAILURE

Verify That There Is Moisture In The System

Connect the manifold gauges to the system.

  1. Connect the "Red" hose to the high-side service fitting.
  2. Connect the "Blue" hose to the low-side fitting.
  3. Connect the "Yellow" hose to a "Capping" stud on the gauge set.

Start the car's engine and switch the AC to its "Maximum" setting. Open both the high and low side valves on the manifold gauge set. A low side reading between 25 and 40 psi and a high-side reading between 225 and 250 psi confirms the presence of moisture in the system. These readings are for a R134a system, if you have a system that uses R12, you should not be working on it.

How Does Moisture Enter the System?

A certain amount of moisture is sucked into the system between the compressor shaft and shaft seals. This is normal, and the engineers included an Accumulator Dryer" or a "Receiver Dryer" in the system to remove this moisture. The accumulator dryer is used in systems that use an orifice tube to meter liquid refrigerant into the evaporator coil. The accumulator dryer attaches to the evaporator's outlet and stores excess liquid refrigerant. The Receiver Dryer is used on a system that employ an expansion valve to meter liquid refrigerant into the evaporator coil. The Receiver Dryer stores excess liquid refrigerant. The Receiver Dryer and the Accumulator Dryer both serve a second purpose; they remove moisture from the refrigerant. They employ a desiccant that absorbs the moisture. Newer accumulator dryers and receiver dryers use XH-7, a desiccant that is compatible with both R12 and R134a.

Replacing The Accumulator Dryer or Receiver Dryer

The accumulator dryer or receiver dryer should be replaced anytime the system is opened up for a major repair. You should replace the dryer if the system is blowing hot and cold and the manifold gauges indicate normal low-side and high-side pressures. Desiccants can only absorb so much moisture before they become saturated and stop absorbing moisture.

Pull A Deep Vacuum After Replacing The Dryer

  1. Close the high side valve on the manifold gauge set.
  2. Attach the "Yellow" hose to the vacuum pump.
  3. Start the vacuum pump and pull 29 inches of Mercury (Hg.)
  4. Shut the vacuum pump down. Check the compound gauge after 30 to 45 minutes has passed. If the vacuum has decreased, you have a leak in the system that you need to find and repair. Read my article on How to Find A Refrigerant Leak for detailed information on the process.

Recharge the System With R134a

Once you have completed all the repairs and evacuated the system, recharge the system with R134a. Refer to my article How to Recharge Your Air Conditioning System for detailed instructions on charging your auto air conditioner.

Next time we will discuss a few other possible causes for the system to blow hot and cold.

How to Replace the Water Pump on All 1996 - 2000 Honda Civic LX / Del Sol 1.6L 4 Cyl Engines

In this repair guide, you will be taken step-by-step through the process of removing and installing a water pump on all 1996 - 2000 Honda Civic LX and Honda Civic del Sol 1.6L 4 cyl engines.

The original radio contains a coded anti-theft circuit. Obtain the security code number before disconnecting the battery cables.

Removal

  1. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
  2. Drain the cooling system.
  3. Remove the accessory drive belts, the valve cover, and the upper timing belt cover.
  4. Set the timing at Top Dead Center (TDC)/compression for No. 1 piston.
  5. Remove the crankshaft pulley and lower timing belt cover.
  6. Remove the timing belt. Replace the timing belt if it is contaminated with oil or coolant or shows any signs of wear and damage.
  7. If equipped with a Crankshaft Speed Fluctuation (CKF) sensor at the crankshaft sprocket, unbolt the sensor bracket and move the sensor out of the way. Cover the sensor with a shop towel to keep coolant off of it.
  8. Unbolt the water pump and remove it from the engine block. On 1.6L engines, the top right water pump mounting bolt also secures the alternator adjusting bracket. Leave the bracket attached to the alternator.

Installation

  1. Clean the water pump and O-ring mating surfaces before installation.
  2. Install the water pump with a new O-ring. Coat only the bolt threads with liquid gasket and tighten them to 9 ft. lbs. (12 Nm). On 1.6L engines, tighten the bracket bolt to 33 ft. lbs. (44 Nm).
  3. Install the timing belt. Be sure it is fitted and adjusted properly.
  4. If equipped, install the CKF sensor and tighten the bracket bolts to 9 ft. lbs. (12 Nm).
  5. Install the lower belt cover and crankshaft pulley.
  6. Install the upper timing belt cover, the valve cover, and the accessory drive belts.
  7. Be sure the cooling system drain plug is closed. Refill and bleed the cooling system.
  8. Connect the negative battery cable and enter the radio security code.
  9. Start the engine, allow it to reach normal operating temperature, and check for coolant leaks.

This is a simplified version of how to replace a water pump. The following video is quite complete:

YouTube

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How To Use A Battery Load Tester

A battery load tester does more than just check the condition of the cars battery, it can be used to check the starting system, the charging system, and the alternator too.

Battery load testers were once too expensive for the do-it-yourself mechanic. Today, a battery load tester is affordable enough for even the casual shade tree mechanic to have in his garage. My favorite is a handheld digital battery loads tester made by KAL Industries, the KAL model 4780, 130 it loads Amp Digital Battery Load Tester that costs less than $50 online.

You can use a Digital Multimeter to check Automobile storage batteries, charging systems, and starting systems, but it is not the right tool for the job. Every serious shade tree mechanic needs to have a stand alone battery load tester on his or her tool kit.

General Guidelines for Using Any Battery Load Tester To Test A Battery

  1. Make sure that the ignition switch is in the "OFF" position and that all-electrical load has been removed from the battery. If there are electrical loads on the battery, you will have to disconnect the battery's negative ground cable. CAUTION: Do not disconnect a battery without first plugging a battery keeper in to the cigarette lighter socket to hold the computer codes.
  2. Do not attempt to load test a battery while the battery is connected up to a battery charger.
  3. Make sure that the battery posts and terminals are clean and free of corrosion before connecting the load tester. Any corrosion present will cause a high resistant connection and produce a false reading.
  4. If you are working with a battery that has side terminals, you need to screw in "Charging Posts" in order to connect the load tester.
  5. All load testers become hot during use so allow them to cool down for 2 to 3 minutes between tests. Never hold the load test button down for more than 10 to 15 seconds. Holding the load test button down for a longer period will cause irreparable harm to the load tester.

Voltage Correction For Temperature

When testing a battery where the ambient temperature is between 40°F and 70°F add 0.1 volt for every 10°F below 70F. When testing a battery where the ambient temperature is between 70°F and 100°F, subtract 0.1 volts for every 10°F above 70°F.

Conducting A Battery Load Test

  1. Connect the Red "+" cable to the Positive "+" battery post and the Black "-" cable to the negative "-" battery post. The LCD readout will display the battery voltage. The battery must be at a 75 percent charge before a load test can be conducted. At 70°F, a 75 percent charge is equal to at least 12.45 volts for a 12-volt battery and 6.23 volts for a 6-volt battery. If the temperature is above or below 70°F, adjust the voltage as explained in the above section on voltage –Vs- temperature correction.
  2. If the state of charge is below 75%, recharge the battery before continuing with the load test. If you have not read my article on How To Use A Battery Charger, you should read it now.
  3. Once the battery is at 75% charge or above, reconnect the load tester to the battery, and hold the "Load Switch" down for 10 seconds. Note the voltage reading on the LCD and release the "Load Switch."
  4. Disconnect the Red lead then the Black lead.

Pixabay

Interpreting The Test Results

  1. A battery in good condition should read between 10.00 and 12.00 volts.
  2. A weak battery will read between 6.10 and 10.00 volts. If the test indicates a weak battery, recharge the battery and conduct the test again. If the results are the same, there are one or more bad cells in the battery and the battery needs to be replaced. If the battery checks good the second time, the battery was not adequately charged before the first test.
  3. A bad battery reads below 6.10 volts. The battery may have been totally discharged before the first test but odds are that the battery is bad and you should replace it.

Using The Load Tester To Test The Starting System

  1. Connect the load tester to the battery as before but do not depress the "Load Test" switch.
  2. Disable the ignition system so the car does not start.
  3. Use a remote start button or have a helper crank the engine for 15 seconds.
  4. Note the voltage readout on the tester's LCD. Assuming a fully charged battery, the voltage should not drop below 9.0 volts. If the voltage drops below 9.0 volts during the test there are electrical or mechanical problems with the starter system
  5. Recharge the battery and repeat the test to confirm the original results.

Conducting A Charging Test

  1. Start the engine and allow the engine to reach operating temperature.
  2. Turn the ignition switch to "OFF" to stop the engine.
  3. Turn the ignition switch to "Accessory" position. Turn the headlights on and the fan on to the high position for one minute. You need to start with a partially discharged batter for this test.
  4. Turn the ignition switch to "OFF" and connect the load tester to the battery.
  5. Start the engine and run at a fast idle (1200 to 1500 RPM.) A charging system in good working order will maintain a voltage between 13.5 and 15.5 volts for a 12-volt system and between 6.7 and 7.4 volts for a 6-volt system. F the voltages are above or below those readings, there is a problem with the charging system.

Conducting An Alternator Test

  1. Connect the red and black battery clamps as before. Plug the small test lead into the jack on the tester and attach the alligator clip to the positive terminal on the alternator. In the case of GM alternators, attach the lead to the N1 terminal without disconnecting the plug.
  2. Start the engine and allow to idle.
  3. If you are testing a Gm alternator, watch the red LED and do not touch the load switch. If the red LED flashes and then goes out or if it never comes on, the diodes are good. If the red LED comes on and stays on the diodes could be bad and the alternator need to be replaced.
  4. If you are not testing a GM alternator, Rev the engine to 1200 to 1500 RPMs.
  5. Press and hold the "Load witch" for 5 seconds. If the red LED flashes and then goes out or never comes on the diodes are good. If the red LED continues to flash or remains on, the alternator or its integral regulator are bad.

Most battery load testers come with detailed instructions on how to conduct all these tests.

How to Replace the Thermostat on All 1996 - 2000 Honda Civic LX / Del Sol 1.6L 4 Cyl Engines

How to replace the thermostat on all 1996 - 2000 Honda Civic LX / del Sol 1.6L 4 cyl engines.

Removal & Installation

Fig 1: Removing the hose from the thermostat housing

Fig 2: Removal of the water outlet housing

Fig 3: Pull the thermostat out of the water outlet housing

Fig 4: Remove the gasket from the thermostat

Fig 5: Location of the thermostat air bleed

CAUTION: Never open, service or drain the radiator or cooling system when hot; serious burns can occur from the steam and hot coolant. Also, when draining engine coolant, keep in mind that cats and dogs are attracted to ethylene glycol antifreeze and could drink any that is left in an uncovered container or in puddles on the ground. This will prove fatal in sufficient quantities. Always drain coolant into a sealable container. Coolant should be reused unless it is contaminated or is several years old.

To remove:

  1. Note the radio security code and station presets.
  2. Disconnect the negative battery cable.
  3. Drain the engine coolant into a sealable container.
  4. Remove the fasteners from the thermostat housing and remove the thermostat.

To install:

  1. Install the thermostat using a new seal. If the thermostat has a small bleed hole, make sure the bleed hole is on the top.
  2. Apply an anti-seize compound to the threads of the fasteners.
  3. Reassemble in the reverse order of disassembly.
  4. Set the heater to the full hot position.
  5. Locate the coolant bleed valve near the thermostat housing and open the valve 1 / 2 a turn.
  6. Top off the cooling system and overflow reservoir with a 50/50 mixture of a recommended antifreeze and water solution. and bleed the system to remove any air pockets as necessary. Simultaneously squeeze the upper and lower radiator hoses to help push any captured air pockets out of the system.
  7. Inspect all coolant hoses and fittings to make sure they are properly installed and if previously opened, close the bleed valve.
  8. Connect the negative battery cable.
  9. Install the radiator cap loosely and start the engine. Allow the engine to run until the cooling fan has cycled two times, then turn the engine off and top off the cooling system as necessary.
  10. Install the radiator cap and inspect for leaks.
  11. Enter the radio security code.

WARNING: The manufacturer does not recommend using a coolant concentration of greater than 60% antifreeze.

When mixing a 50/50 solution of antifreeze and water, using distilled water may help to keep the cooling system from building up mineral deposits and internal blockage.

How to Remove & Install the Alternator on a 1996 - 2000 Honda Accord DX / Prelude 2.2L 4 Cyl Engines

This guide will take you step-by-step through the process of removing and installing an alternator on all 1996 - 2000 Honda Accord DX and Honda Prelude vehicles with 2.2L 4 cyl engines.

Fig. 1 Location of the alternator on most Honda 4 cylinder engines

Fig. 2 Remove the dust boot for access to wiring connection at the alternator

Fig. 3 Unfasten the nut, then remove the closed-ended connector

Fig. 4 Unplug the wiring harness from the rear of the alternator

Fig. 5 Check the O-ring on the end of the wiring harness for cracks and or tears in the rubber. Replace as necessary

Fig. 6 After removing the retaining bolts, use a small prytool to remove the alternator from the pivot bracket if it is lodged

Fig. 7 Using both hands, firmly grasp the alternator and remove it from the vehicle

Fig. 8 Front view of a common Honda alternator

Fig. 9 Rear view of a common Honda alternator

Fig. 10 Always inspect the integrity of the alternator bolt before re-installing it

REMOVAL (ACCORD)

  1. Note the radio security code and the radio presets.
  2. Disconnect the negative battery cable, then the positive.
  3. Remove the power steering pump, for details, please refer to Section 8.
  4. Detach the wiring from the alternator.
  5. Loosen the through bolt, then loosen the adjustment locknut and the adjusting bolt.
  6. Remove the alternator belt.
  7. Remove all mounting and adjusting bolts and then remove the alternator unit from the vehicle.

INSTALLATION (ACCORD)

  1. Installation is the reverse of removal. Tighten the adjusting locknut to 16 ft. lbs. (22 Nm) and the through bolt to 33 ft. lbs. (45 Nm).
  2. Adjust the alternator belt tension, as outlined in Section 1.
  3. Enter the anti-theft code for the radio.

REMOVAL (PRELUDE)

Fig. 11 Alternator mounting bolt locations (Prelude)

  1. Disconnect the negative battery cable, then the positive.
  2. Remove the power steering pump. For more details, please refer to Section 8.
  3. Detach the cruise control actuator, but do not remove the cable.
  4. Loosen the through bolt, then loosen adjusting bolt.
  5. Remove the alternator belt.
  6. Remove the adjusting bolt.
  7. Remove the through bolt, then remove the alternator from the vehicle.

INSTALLATION (PRELUDE)

  1. Installation is the reverse of removal. Tighten the alternator locknut to 16 ft. lbs. (22 Nm) and the mounting bolt to 33 ft. lbs. (45 Nm).
  2. Adjust the alternator belt tension, as outlined in Section 1.

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https://knoji.com/how-to-remove-install-an-alternator-on-a-1984-1995-honda-civic-crx-del-sol/

Why Your Dodge Stratus Might Be Overheating

The 2004 Dodge Stratus had issues with the water pumps

First of all, it's very important to remember not to remove the radiator cap or any hose while the engine is still hot and under pressure; serious burns from coolant can occur.

There are more reasons your engine could be overheating than it would be realistic to discuss in this format. Everything from coolant fan failure to a bad head gasket to an incorrect radiator cap could be the source.

When talking about overheating problems on the Stratus, however, the first thing that comes to mind is the water pump. A water pump is just what it sounds like, a mechanical device, driven by a belt that pumps coolant (antifreeze) to the engine, heater core and cooling systems of your vehicle. While the water pump circulates the coolant continuously through your engine, the thermostat is what will tell it at what rate to push the coolant. The water pump consists of a main body, a flange, a main shaft, bearings, seals, an impeller and a gasket that will seal it to the engine.

When a water pump goes bad or is going bad, a couple of things can happen. First you could hear a squeaking noise or a rattle under the hood and see an increase in temperature. Second, it could leak coolant. Depending on how bad the leak is, you might see drips under the engine or you may see a large puddle. Finally, the pump can fail internally. There is a small impeller that can fail inside the pump, thereby not allowing it to pump coolant, but also not showing any of the visible symptoms, like a coolant leak or a noise.

The Dodge Stratus was available with both a four-cylinder and a six-cylinder engine. The water pump on the four cylinder engine is driven by the water pump that has a steel impeller; they are not as prone to breakage as the ones with plastic impellers. If the water pump is deemed bad on a four-cylinder engine, it is wise to also replace the timing belt since it will be off anyway.

The water pump on the six cylinder engine is behind the timing cover and is driven by the timing chain. It does have a plastic impeller and these water pumps are known to be troublesome. It is possible to find aftermarket water pumps with steel impellers; however, at this time Dodge is still making them with plastic impellers. If you have to replace the pump on a six cylinder engine, I would definitely look into finding one with a steel impeller.

Because of the difficulty level in diagnosing an overheating problem, it is probably a good idea to bring this one to a qualified mechanic. If the water pump is the source of the problem, it is a very complicated repair no matter which engine we are talking about.

It is also worthwhile to check and make sure that any parts you have replaced already were for the correct vehicle. It's a common mistake to put a radiator cap for a 2.4 liter engine on a 2.7 liter.

If you want to determine on your own if the water pump is circulating coolant, it is possible, although probably wiser to bring it to someone who is certified in engine repair.

-For the 2.0 or 2.4 liter engine, first make sure the engine is cold. Remove the radiator cap and remove a small amount of coolant. Start the engine and allow it to idle until the thermostat opens. You should be able to see coolant flowing when looking down into the filler neck. Replace the radiator cap and the removed coolant.

-For the 2.7 liter engine, start the engine and allow it to come up to temperature. You should be able to see coolant flow when you rev the engine in the coolant pressure container.

It is also possible to check the coolant flow on either engine by starting it and allowing it to come up to temperature and then squeezing the upper radiator hose, it should be hot if the coolant is flowing correctly.

If the radiator cap, thermostat and water pump have all been verified as functioning correctly, the next thing to look at would be a problem with the cooling fans, a cracked head or a bad head gasket.   

Basic Car Maintenance Tips: Antifreeze and Coolant

Keeping antifreeze/coolant in your car is an easy basic maintenance procedure that can extend the life of your engine. Cooling system failure is a major cause of engine breakdowns.

Keeping the cooling system in your car properly filled with an antifreeze coolant formula is critical to maintaining a well running engine.

Purpose of Coolant/Antifreeze

The purpose of antifreeze/coolant is two fold just as the name of the product implies. It both keeps the water in your car from freezing in cold weather and keeps it from boiling and overheating in hot weather. Either of these conditions can cause a breakdown and serious injury to your engine.

Pre-mixed - Unmixed - Rust Inhibitor Formulas

Antifreeze comes in pre-mixed and unmixed formulas. Antifreeze also comes in formulas with additives to inhibit rust. You never want to put unmixed antifreeze directly into your system. It must be mixed with water. A 50/50 mixture is typical but there are exceptions and it is always a good idea to read the label on the product as well as your vehicle owner's manual.

Filling the Radiator

Make sure your engine is turned off and your car has cooled down. Find the antifreeze reservoir tank. This is generally a white slightly opaque plastic tank near the side under the hood. There should be a fill line on the side of the tank and you can simply pour the antifreeze mixture into the tank. It is that simple. If you don’t have one then you will have to add the fluid directly into the radiator. Never remove the radiator cap while your engine is hot. You can be seriously injured by steam and hot fluid. Use a thick rag over the radiator cap and push down and turn to release the cap. There will be a spring that makes the cap pop up and then you may have to give it a couple more turns to remove it. Pour the mixture directly into the radiator looking down into the tank to monitor how full it is.

Additional Maintenance

It is recommended that you have your cooling system flushed and refilled about every five years. It is better in my opinion to have this done at a garage rather than doing it yourself. It is messy and the fluid is very toxic and has to be captured carefully, labeled and taken to a hazardous waste facility. Any additional water that you use to flush the system also has to be captured. The mechanics have the system and procedure to do this.

You will notice that there is a hose coming in and a hose coming out of the radiator which have clamps and fittings. Check the hoses and clamps for cracks, holes, tears and rust. Check the reservoir tank for damage. Also check the cap on the radiator and if the spring has lost its tension or the seal is questionable you will have to replace it. Do not replace the hoses yourself if you are not intending to drain and capture the fluids as stated above. Take your car in and let the mechanic do it.

If the radiator is dirty you can hose it down from the outside but just don’t put your hose on full blast with high pressure. Just enough pressure to rinse any debris or leaves.

ANTIFREEZE IS TOXIC

Let me say this again, ANTIFREEZE IS VERY TOXIC. Never drain antifreeze on to the ground or allow it to run into the driveway or street. It is sweet and pets and animals are attracted to it and will drink it and die. Children may be attracted to it as well. It is dangerous and must be disposed of at a hazardous waste facility. Clearly label all containers having antifreeze and seal them and take them to the proper disposal facility near you. You can always call a garage or mechanic to get this information.

For more basic car maintenance tips see  Basic Car Maintenance Tips: Automatic Transmission Fluid (ATF) and Basic Car Maintenance Tips: Motor Oil

And as always, be cautious and never lean over a running engine with dangling ties, jewelry or hair.

Taking a road trip? See my article on Travel Nova Scotia Digby Neck to Brier Island .

DIY Windshield Wiper Repair

Cleaning and reusing your windshield wipers saves you money and conserves resources. A few simple cleaning suggestions to make you rubber windshield wipers clean and provide you with a safe, squeak-free use that compares to new wipers.

In these difficult economic times we try to save money wherever possible. Rebuild, reuse and recycle are the new "The Three Rs."

So many things in today's world are convenience-packaged, disposable and just plain don't last very long. And accordingly, often pricey to replace. Windshield wipers for your vehicle are no exception. But with a little effort, a set of windshield wipers can be rehabilitated and reused. Perhaps not indefinitely, but a single re-use can save you upwards of $20.00

Windshield Wiper Renewal is Easy!

Remove the windshield wipers. Check for torn or frayed edges. Any physically damaged wiper blade must be replace with OEM, but if the rubber edge is not ripped, torn or cracked, they can be cleaned and reused again.

Soaking in soapy water and cleaning with dish detergent will remove the rubber oxidation. You will notice the black water, indicating that sun-bleached rubber is being washed away.

Wipe dry and with a rag soaked in white vinegar, clean the wiper again. You will likely see even more black-water castoff from the rubber, but when you are done the blades will be squeaky clean. All the road tars and insect debris will be gone. The wiper blades are almost as good as brand new!

At this point I like to spray the rubber wipers with any good silicone spray. This moisturizes and protects the rubber from the elements. Having just cleaned the weather-worn rubber blades, you have exposed minute porosity in the surface of the blades. The silicone will help to fill these pits and micro-tears.

If you use a product such as Rain-X, you can use this to recondition your rubber wipers instead of silicone spray, but either product is equally effective.

Allow the wipers to dry for awhile. The silicone will likely soak in a bit. Wipe the blades completely dry. Now would be a good time to clean your windshield with any good glass or counter-top cleaning product such as Windex. A solution of white vinegar and water makes an excellent glass cleaner that many say works as well or even better than Windex.

I am fond us using wadded sheet of newspaper to clean and dry the washed windshield of our car for a streak-free clean that is difficult to get using paper towels or cloth.

Reinstall the cleaned and reconditioned windshield wipers and enjoy a squeak-free use rivals brand new wipers.

How to Replace the Engine on All 1997 - 2000 Toyota Camry / Avalon 2.2L 4 Cyl Models

How to Replace the Engine on All 1997 - 2000 Toyota Camry / Avalon 2.2L 4 Cyl Models.

REMOVAL & INSTALLATION

2.2L (5S-FE) Engine

Camry & Camry Solara

  • Disconnect the negative battery cable. On vehicles equipped with an air bag, wait at least 90 seconds before proceeding.
  • On the Camry Solara remove the strut tower brace.
  • Remove the battery and the battery tray.
  • Remove the hood.
  • Remove the engine undercover, then drain the engine coolant and oil.
  • Disconnect the accelerator cable from the throttle body.
  • On models with automatic transmission, disconnect the throttle cable.
  • Remove the air cleaner assembly.
  • Detach the intake air resonator chamber.
  • Disconnect the air intake hose.
  • On models with cruise control, remove the actuator cover, unplug the connector, remove the 3 bolts, then disconnect the actuator with the bracket.
  • Disconnect the ground strap at the battery carrier.
  • Remove the radiator, then disconnect the coolant reservoir hose.
  • Remove the washer tank and disconnect the electrical lead and hose.
  • Tag and disconnect the following:
  • The 5 connectors to the engine relay box
  • The igniter connector
  • The noise filter connector
  • The connector at the left-hand fender apron
  • The 2 ground straps from the left-hand and right-hand fender aprons
  • The data link connector (DLC1)
  • Disconnect the MAP sensor connector
  • Inside the vehicle, remove the dash panel undercover, the glove compartment door, the glove compartment, disconnect the cowl harness connectors and the 2 Engine Control Module (ECM) connectors.
  • Disconnect the heater hoses, the fuel return hose, and the fuel inlet hose.
  • On models with manual transmission, remove the starter and the clutch release cylinder. Don't disconnect the hydraulic line, simply hang the cylinder out of the way.
  • Disconnect the transaxle control cables at the transaxle.
  • Tag and disconnect all remaining vacuum hoses and connectors.
  • Remove the 2 nuts and pull out the engine wire from the cowl panel.
  • Without disconnecting the refrigerant lines, remove the air conditioning compressor and carefully position it out of the way.
  • Loosen the 2 bolts and disconnect the front exhaust pipe bracket. Use a deep 14mm socket and remove the 3 nuts attaching the front pipe to the manifold. Disconnect the front pipe from the exhaust manifold.
  • Remove the halfshafts.
  • Without disconnecting the hydraulic lines, remove the power steering pump and carefully position it aside.
  • Remove the 3 bolts (manual transmission) or 4 bolts (automatic transmission), then disconnect the left engine mounting insulator. Remove the access plugs, remove the 3 nuts, then remove the right rear engine mounting insulator. Remove the 3 bolts and disconnect the front right engine mounting insulator.
  • Attach an engine lifting device to the lift hooks. Remove the 3 bolts and disconnect the control rod.
  • Slowly and carefully, lift the engine/transaxle assembly out of the engine compartment.
  • If equipped with automatic transmission, remove the starter.
  • Separate the engine assembly from the transaxle.

To install:

  • Connect the engine assembly to the transaxle.

NOTE

On vehicles equipped with automatic transmission, install the starter.

  • Carefully lower the engine and transaxle assembly into the engine compartment.
  • With the engine level and all the mounts aligned with their brackets, install the engine control rod. Tighten the 3 bolts, in the sequence to 47 ft. lbs. (64 Nm).
  • Connect the front right engine mount and tighten the bolts to 59 ft. lbs. (80 Nm). Connect the rear mount and tighten the nuts to 48 ft. lbs. (66 Nm). Don't forget the access plugs.
  • Connect the left mount and tighten the bolts (3 or 4) to 47 ft. lbs. (64 Nm).
  • Install the power steering pump and tighten the bolts to 31 ft. lbs. (43 Nm). Install the drive belt and connect the 2 air hoses to the air pipe.
  • Install the halfshafts.
  • Connect the front pipe to the manifold and tighten the new nuts to 46 ft. lbs. (62 Nm).
  • Install the air conditioning compressor and tighten the bolts to 20 ft. lbs. (27 Nm).
  • Feed the engine harness through the cowl and reattach the clamp to the cowl. Make the following connections:
  • The 2 ECM connectors
  • The 2 cowl wire connectors
  • Install the glove compartment and door
  • Install the lower instrument panel and the undercover
  • Connect the vacuum hoses and the transaxle control cables.
  • On manual transmission vehicles, install the release cylinder and the starter.
  • Connect the fuel inlet hose and tighten it to 22 ft. lbs. (29 Nm). Connect the return hose and the 2 heater hoses.
  • Connect the following:
  • Attach the 5 connectors to the relay box
  • The connectors from the left-hand fender apron
  • Install the engine relay box
  • The igniter connector
  • On California models, the ignition coil connector
  • The noise filter connector
  • The 2 ground straps from the left-hand and right-hand fender apron
  • The data link connector (DLC1)
  • The Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor connector.
  • Install the washer tank and connect the electrical lead and hose.
  • Install the coolant reservoir hose and the radiator.
  • If equipped with cruise control, install the actuator and bracket with the 3 bolts. Connect the actuator connector and install the cover.
  • Connect the ground strap to the battery carrier.
  • Install the air cleaner assembly.
  • On California models, connect the air hose to the air cleaner assembly and connect the air intake temperature sensor connector.
  • On vehicles equipped with automatic transmission, connect and adjust the throttle cable.
  • Connect and adjust the accelerator cable.
  • Install the battery tray and battery.
  • On Camry Solara models install the strut tower brace.
  • Install the hood.
  • Fill the engine with oil and coolant.
  • Connect the negative battery cable, start the engine, bleed the cooling system, and check for any leaks.
  • Install the engine undercover.
  • Road test the vehicle for any abnormal noise and verify proper operation.

3.0L (1MZ-FE) Engine

Camry & Camry Solara

  • Release the fuel system pressure.
  • Turn the ignition switch OFF .
  • Disconnect the battery cables, negative cable first.

NOTE

On vehicles equipped with an air bag, wait at least 90 seconds before proceeding.

  • Matchmark the hood hinges and remove the hood.
  • Remove the battery and battery tray.
  • Drain the engine oil and cooling system.
  • Disconnect the accelerator and throttle cables.
  • Remove the cruise control actuator, if equipped.
  • Remove the air cleaner assembly, mass air flow meter and air cleaner hose.
  • Remove the radiator.
  • Remove the 2 bolts and disconnect the engine relay box.
  • Disconnect the 5 connectors to the engine relay box.
  • Disconnect the following connectors:
  • 2 igniter connectors
  • Noise filter connector
  • Connector from the left-hand fender apron
  • Disconnect the 2 ground straps and any other electrical connections keeping them from being removed.
  • Disconnect all vacuum hoses from the engine.
  • Disconnect the fuel inlet and return hoses.
  • Disconnect the heater hoses.
  • Disconnect the transaxle control cable from the transaxle.
  • Remove the instrument panel undercover, the lower instrument panel and glove box assembly.
  • Disconnect the 3 Engine Control Module (ECM) connectors, the 5 cowl wire connectors, and the cooling fan ECM connector. Push the engine wire through the cowl panel.
  • Remove the front exhaust pipe.
  • Remove the halfshafts from the vehicle.
  • Disconnect the power steering pressure tube.
  • Remove the power steering pump.
  • Remove the air conditioning compressor without disconnecting the hoses.
  • Remove the left-hand engine mounting insulator by removing the 4 bolts.
  • Remove the right-hand engine mounting insulator by removing the 2 hole plugs, then removing the 4 nuts.
  • Remove the 4 bolts to the engine mounting shock absorber, then remove the absorber.
  • Remove the front right engine mounting insulator by removing the 3 bolts.
  • Attach a hoist chain to the engine hangers.
  • Disconnect the coolant reservoir hose and remove the reservoir tank.
  • Remove right-side engine mounting stay bracket. Remove the engine control rod and bracket assembly.

NOTE

Make certain all wires, connectors and hoses are cleared from the engine.

  • Using an engine hoist, carefully lift the engine/transaxle assembly from the vehicle.

To install:

  • Carefully lower the engine position. Keep the engine level while aligning the engine mounts.
  • Install the engine control rod and bracket. Tighten to 47 ft. lbs. (64 Nm).
  • Install the right engine mount stay bracket. Tighten to 23 ft. lbs. (31 Nm).
  • Connect the engine ground straps. Install the coolant reservoir tank.
  • Install the front engine insulator. Tighten to 48 ft. lbs. (66 Nm).
  • Install the engine mounting shock absorber. Tighten to 35 ft. lbs. (48 Nm).
  • Install the left and right engine mounts. Tighten to 48 ft. lbs. (66 Nm).
  • Install the power steering pump and air conditioning compressor.
  • Connect the power steering pressure tube.
  • Install the halfshafts and front exhaust pipe.
  • Push the engine wires through the cowl panel and connect all wires and connectors.
  • Connect the transaxle control cable to the transaxle.
  • Connect the fuel hoses and heater hoses.
  • Connect all vacuum hoses, wiring and connectors.
  • Install the radiator.
  • Install the cruise control actuator, if equipped. Connect the throttle cable and accelerator cable.
  • Install the Mass Air Flow meter, the air cleaner assembly, and air cleaner hose.
  • Fill the cooling system with the proper coolant/water mixture. Fill the engine with engine oil.
  • Install the battery tray and battery. Connect the battery cables; negative cable last.
  • Align the marks and install the hood.
  • Start the engine and check for leaks.
  • Perform a road test.
  • Recheck all fluid levels.

Avalon

  • Release the fuel system pressure.
  • Turn the ignition switch OFF .
  • Disconnect the battery cables, negative cable first.

NOTE

On vehicles equipped with an air bag, wait at least 90 seconds before proceeding.

  • Matchmark the hood hinges and remove the hood.
  • Remove the battery and battery tray.
  • Drain the engine oil and cooling system.
  • Disconnect the accelerator and throttle cables.
  • Remove the cruise control actuator, if equipped.
  • Remove the air cleaner assembly, mass air flow meter and air cleaner hose.
  • Remove the radiator.
  • Remove the bolts and disconnect the engine relay box.
  • Disconnect the connectors to the engine relay box.
  • Disconnect the following connectors:
  • Igniter connectors
  • Noise filter connector
  • Connector from the left-hand fender apron
  • Disconnect the ground straps and any other electrical connections keeping them from being removed.
  • Disconnect all vacuum hoses from the engine.
  • Disconnect the fuel inlet and return hoses.
  • Disconnect the heater hoses.
  • Disconnect the transaxle control cable from the transaxle.
  • Remove the instrument panel undercover, the lower instrument panel and glove box assembly.
  • Disconnect the Engine Control Module (ECM) connectors, the cowl wire connectors, and the cooling fan ECM connector. Push the engine wire through the cowl panel.
  • Remove the front exhaust pipe.
  • Remove the halfshafts from the vehicle.
  • Disconnect the power steering pressure tube.
  • Remove the power steering pump.
  • Remove the air conditioning compressor without disconnecting the hoses.
  • Remove the left-hand engine mounting insulator by removing the bolts.
  • Remove the right-hand engine mounting insulator by removing the hole plugs, then removing the nuts.
  • Remove the 4 bolts to the engine mounting shock absorber, then remove the absorber.
  • Remove the front right engine mounting insulator by removing the bolts.
  • Attach a hoist chain to the engine hangers.
  • Disconnect the coolant reservoir hose and remove the reservoir tank.
  • Remove right-side engine mounting stay bracket. Remove the engine control rod and bracket assembly.

NOTE

Make certain all wires, connectors and hoses are cleared from the engine.

  • Using an engine hoist, carefully lift the engine/transaxle assembly from the vehicle.

To install:

  • Carefully lower the engine position. Keep the engine level while aligning the engine mounts.
  • Install the engine control rod and bracket. Tighten to 47 ft. lbs. (64 Nm).
  • Install the right engine mount stay bracket. Tighten to 23 ft. lbs. (31 Nm).
  • Connect the engine ground straps. Install the coolant reservoir tank.
  • Install the front engine insulator. If the bolts are silver colored, tighten to 32 ft. lbs. (44 Nm). If the bolts are green in color, tighten them to 49 ft. lbs. (66 Nm).
  • Install the engine mounting shock absorber. Tighten to 35 ft. lbs. (48 Nm).
  • Install the left and right engine mounts. Tighten to 47 ft. lbs. (64 Nm).
  • Install the power steering pump and air conditioning compressor.
  • Connect the power steering pressure tube.
  • Install the halfshafts and front exhaust pipe.
  • Push the engine wires through the cowl panel and connect all wires and connectors.
  • Connect the transaxle control cable to the transaxle.
  • Connect the fuel hoses and heater hoses.
  • Connect all vacuum hoses, wiring and connectors.
  • Install the radiator.
  • Install the cruise control actuator, if equipped. Connect the throttle cable and accelerator cable.
  • Install the Mass Air Flow meter, the air cleaner assembly, and air cleaner hose.
  • Fill the cooling system with the proper coolant/water mixture. Fill the engine with engine oil.
  • Install the battery tray and battery. Connect the battery cables; negative cable last.
  • Align the marks and install the hood.
  • Start the engine and check for leaks.
  • Perform a road test.
  • Recheck all fluid levels.